Potency and safety analysis of hemp-derived delta-9 products: The hemp vs. cannabis demarcation problem

Word of Wisdom
As Section LXXX (80) in the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants
BookDoctrine and Covenants
CategoryRevelation

The "Word of Wisdom" is the common name of an 1833 section of the Doctrine and Covenants,[1] a book considered by many churches within the Latter Day Saint movement to be a sacred text. The section defines beliefs regarding certain drugs, nutritious ingredients in general, and the counsel to eat meat sparingly; it also offers promises to those who follow the guidance of the Word of Wisdom.[2]

As practiced by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the largest Latter Day Saint denomination, the Word of Wisdom explicitly prohibits the consumption of alcohol, tobacco, tea, and coffee (with tea and coffee being labeled as "hot drinks"), and recreational drug use, and encourages healthy practices such as nutritious eating, the sparing use of meat, regular exercise, proper hygiene, and getting sufficient rest.[2]

Compliance with the Word of Wisdom is necessary in the LDS Church to become a member and to participate in various church functions,[3][4] however, violation of the code is not normally cause for a church membership council.[5]

History

Beginnings under Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, dictated the Word of Wisdom as a revelation from the Christian God on was dictated on February 27, 1833.[2] The Word of Wisdom was first published as a stand-alone broadsheet in December 1833. In 1835, it was included as Section LXXX (80)[6] in the first edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. Brigham Young stated after Smith's death that the revelation was given in response to problems encountered while conducting meetings in the Smith family home:[7]

When they assembled together in this room after breakfast, the first they did was to light their pipes, and, while smoking, talk about the great things of the kingdom, and spit all over the room, and as soon as the pipe was out of their mouths a large chew of tobacco would then be taken. Often when the Prophet [Joseph Smith] entered the room to give the school instructions he would find himself in a cloud of tobacco smoke. This, and the complaints of his wife at having to clean so filthy a floor, made the Prophet think upon the matter, and he inquired of the Lord relating to the conduct of the Elders in using tobacco, and the revelation known as the Word of Wisdom was the result of his inquiry.

In February 1834, Joseph Smith proposed a resolution before the high council of the church that stated, "No official member in this Church is worthy to hold an office after having the word of wisdom properly taught him; and he, the official member, neglecting to comply with and obey it."[8][9][10] This resolution was accepted unanimously by the council.[8] The charge of "not observing the Word of Wisdom" was later one of five leveled against David Whitmer (who was an apostle, and one of the Three Witnesses) on April 13, 1838, which led to his excommunication.[11]

Joseph Smith is however recorded at various times drinking wine,[12] beer,[13] and tea,[14] and using tobacco.[15] One account by Amasa Lyman, a member of the First Presidency under Smith, reports that Smith once finished preaching a sermon on the Word of Wisdom and immediately afterward rode through the streets smoking a cigar.[16][17] Similarly, Almon W. Babbitt stated "that he had taken the liberty to break the Word of Wisdom, from the example of President Joseph Smith, Jun., and others, but acknowledged that it was wrong" when he was brought before the church's high council on August 19, 1835, on the charge of "not keeping the Word of Wisdom".[18] Joseph Smith had also been operating a hotel/tavern in Far West, Missouri, in 1838, and in June of that year, the high council of Far West felt compelled to remind Smith's family that there was a ban on the sale and consumption of "ardent spirits in the place".[19]

Post-succession crisis

In the LDS Church

After Smith's death, several factions emerged from the Latter Day Saint movement. The largest of these groups, the LDS Church, was led by Brigham Young. At a church general conference on September 9, 1851, Young called on the attendees to "leave off the use of" items mentioned in the Word of Wisdom:

The Patriarch [John Smith] again rose to speak on the Word of Wisdom, and urging on the brethren to leave off using tobacco, &c.

President Young rose to put the motion and called on all the sisters who will leave off the use of tea, coffee, &c., to manifest it by raising the right hand; seconded and carried.

And then put the following motion; calling on all the boys [sic] who were under ninety years of age who would covenant to leave off the use of tobacco, whisky, and all things mentioned in the Word of Wisdom, to manifest it in the same manner, which was carried unanimously."

The Patriarch then said, may the Lord bless you and help you to keep all your covenants. Amen.

President Young amongst other things said he knew the goodness of the people, and the Lord bears with our weakness; we must serve the Lord, and those who go with me will keep the Word of Wisdom, and if the High Priests, the Seventies, the Elders, and others will not serve the Lord, we will sever them from the Church. I will draw the line, and know who is for the Lord and who is not, and those who will not keep the Word of Wisdom, I will cut off from the Church; I throw out a challenge to all men and women.[20]

Though Young encouraged Mormons to follow the Word of Wisdom code, the church was tolerant of those who did not follow it. In 1860, Young counseled those chewing tobacco in church meetings to at least be discreet and not excessive, but did not charge users with sin.[21] By 1870, he ended the practice of chewing and spitting tobacco in the Salt Lake Tabernacle.[22]

Young also recognized a separation between using tobacco (which was discouraged), and selling it to non-Mormons as a business (which was encouraged).[23] He also owned and maintained a bar in Salt Lake City for the sale of alcoholic beverages to non-Mormon travelers, on the theory that it was better for LDS Church authorities to run such establishments than for outsiders.[24]

The modern LDS application of the Word of Wisdom has its beginnings in the presidency of Joseph F. Smith, who became LDS Church president in 1901 at a time when even notable church leaders drank alcohol and coffee. For example, George Albert Smith, apostle and later church president, "took brandy for medicinal reasons", Anthon H. Lund, First Counselor in the First Presidency, "enjoyed Danish beer and currant wine", Charles W. Penrose, Second Counselor in the First Presidency, "occasionally served wine", Matthias F. Cowley, apostle, "enjoyed Danish beer and currant wine", Brigham Young, Jr. and John Henry Smith, both apostles, argued in 1901 "that the Church ought not interdict beer, or at least not Danish beer", and Emmeline B. Wells, of the Relief Society presidency (and who was later president of the Relief Society), "drank an occasional cup of coffee". As church president, Joseph F. Smith emphasized the proscriptions on alcohol, tobacco, tea, and coffee. Adherence was still however not a prerequisite for entry into the temple, and in 1902 Smith encouraged stake presidents to be liberal when issuing temple recommends with old men who used tobacco and old ladies who drank tea. Of those who violated the revelation, it was mainly habitual drunkards that were excluded from the temple.[25]

In 1921, LDS Church president Heber J. Grant finally made adherence to the Word of Wisdom a prerequisite for temple admission. Then, both the 1928 and 1934 editions of the Handbook — but not previous editions—listed "liquor drinking" and "bootlegging" among the "transgressions which are ordinarily such as to justify consideration by the bishop's court." To these the 1934 edition also added "drunkenness."[25] Violation of the Word of Wisdom is however not currently (no longer) cause for church discipline.[5]

Popular application

Adherence to the Word of Wisdom in the LDS Church is required for baptism[3] and participation in the church (such as entry into the temple, full-time missionary service, and attendance at church schools),[4] however the church instructs its leaders that violation of the Word of Wisdom is not normally cause for a church membership council and that church discipline "should not be [used] to discipline or threaten members who do not comply with the Word of Wisdom".[5]

A 2019 study of attitudes among Mormons within the U.S. said that a quarter to a half of such individuals interpret the Word of Wisdom in variance with the official interpretation by the LDS Church in some manner,[26] and LDS Church leaders have counseled church members that they should not have personal interpretations of, or become extreme in their observance of the Word of Wisdom. One church leader specifically warned that adding additional unauthorized requirements, emphasizing it with excess zeal, or making it a "gospel hobby" is a sign of spiritual immaturity and sometimes apostasy.[27]

Alcohol

LDS Church leaders teach that consumption of any form of alcohol, including beer, violates the Word of Wisdom,[28][29][30] however, wine was used in the sacrament, and "mild drinks" (beers) were originally allowed.[25][31][32][33]

Tobacco

In the LDS Church, tobacco is not allowed in any form, including smoking, chewing, or vaping.[28]

Tea and coffee

The LDS Church prohibits tea and coffee, as interpreted from the mention of "hot drinks" in the scripture; it teaches that it does not matter whether or not the drinks are hot. It has not taken a clear position on decaffeinated tea or coffee.[34]

There is generally thought to be no prohibition against drinking herbal tea, coffee substitutes such as Pero and Postum, hot chocolate, malt drinks such as Ovaltine and Milo, mate, or hot water.[35]

Definition of the term "hot drinks"

"Hot drinks" is clarified for the LDS Church handbook:

The only official interpretation of "hot drinks" (D&C 89:9) in the Word of Wisdom is the statement made by early Church leaders that the term "hot drinks" means tea and coffee.[36]

In 1842, Smith's brother Hyrum, who was the Assistant President of the Church and its presiding patriarch, provided an interpretation of the Word of Wisdom's proscription of "hot drinks":

And again "hot drinks are not for the body, or belly;" there are many who wonder what this can mean; whether it refers to tea, or coffee, or not. I say it does refer to tea, and coffee.[37]

According to a book written by LDS missionary and hymnographer Joel H. Johnson in 1881, Joseph Smith shared Hyrum's interpretation:

I understand that some of the people are excusing themselves in using tea and coffee, because the Lord only said "hot drinks" in the revelation of the Word of Wisdom .... Tea and coffee ... are what the Lord meant when He said "hot drinks".[38][39]

Cola and other caffeinated beverages

A longstanding issue among members of the LDS Church is whether it is permissible to ingest drinks containing caffeine that are not tea or coffee. In 1918, Frederick J. Pack, a Mormon professor at the University of Utah, published an article in an official church magazine in which he reasoned that because Coca-Cola contained caffeine, which is also present in tea and coffee, Mormons should abstain from Coca-Cola in the same way that they abstain from the Word of Wisdom "hot drinks".[40] Since Pack's article, many Mormons have come to believe that the reason tea and coffee are proscribed is the presence of caffeine in the drinks. However, the church has never stated that this is the reason for the prohibition.

The church does not have an official position on the consumption of caffeinated beverages, apart from the general statement that the Word of Wisdom does not specifically mention it. In 2012, in response to a report on Mormonism on NBC's Rock Center with Brian Williams, which claimed that LDS faithful were prohibited from drinking caffeine, the church wrote:

Despite what was reported, the Church revelation spelling out health practices (Doctrine and Covenants 89) does not mention the use of caffeine. The Church's health guidelines prohibits alcoholic drinks, smoking or chewing of tobacco, and "hot drinks"—taught by Church leaders to refer specifically to tea and coffee.[41]

In the past, a number of church leaders have discouraged the use of such products. For example, in 1922, church president Heber J. Grant counseled the Latter-day Saints:

I am not going to give any command, but I will ask it as a personal, individual favor to me, to let coca-cola [sic] alone. There are plenty of other things you can get at the soda fountains without drinking that which is injurious. The Lord does not want you to use any drug that creates an appetite for itself.[42]

Two years after making this statement, Grant met with a representative of The Coca-Cola Company to discuss the church's position on Coca-Cola; at the conclusion of their second meeting, Grant stated that he was "sure I have not the slightest desire to recommend that the people leave Coca-Cola alone if th[e] amount [of caffeine in Coca-Cola] is absolutely harmless, which they claim it is."[25] Grant never again spoke out against the use of cola drinks.

Approximately fifty years later, the church issued an official statement which stated:

With reference to cola drinks, the Church has never officially taken a position on this matter, but the leaders of the Church have advised, and we do now specifically advise, against the use of any drink containing harmful habit-forming drugs under circumstances that would result in acquiring the habit. Any beverage that contains ingredients harmful to the body should be avoided.[43]

Because of such statements, some adherents believe that caffeine is officially prohibited under the Word of Wisdom.[44][45] In the mid-1950s, the director of the food services for Brigham Young University, a college owned by the LDS Church, decided not to sell caffeine on campus. This changed in September 2017 when the director of BYU Dining Services announced that caffeinated beverages would be sold on campus. Wright said this was the result of a change in customer preferences.[46] Official church publications have occasionally published articles by medical practitioners that warn of the health risks of consuming caffeine.[47][48][49] However, in November 2010, the Salt Lake Tribune noted that in the 2010 church Handbook, which sets out the official position of the church on health and social issues, no position on drinking Coca-Cola or caffeinated drinks is included.[50] The Salt Lake Tribune concluded that the church "takes no official position on caffeine".[51]

Meat

The Word of Wisdom states that "flesh also of beasts and of the fowls of the air ... are to be used sparingly", and that "it is pleasing unto [God] that they should not be used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine."[52]

Many LDS Church leaders have expressed their views on the subject of meat. In 1868, church president Brigham Young counseled, "Flesh should be used sparingly, in famine and in cold."[53] In 1868, apostle George Q. Cannon said, "We are told that flesh of any kind is not suitable to man in the summer time, and ought to be eaten sparingly in the winter."[54] From 1897 to 1901, apostle and then church president Lorenzo Snow repeatedly emphasized the importance of eating meat sparingly, teaching that church members should refrain from eating meat except in case of dire necessity, and that this should be seen in light of Smith's teaching that animals have spirits.[25] In 1895, Snow stated, "Unless famine or extreme cold is upon us we should refrain from the use of meat."[55] Apostle George Teasdale taught the same thing, and held that eating pork was a more serious breach of the Word of Wisdom than drinking tea or coffee.[25] When Joseph F. Smith succeeded Snow as president of the church in 1901, he preached regularly against the "unnecessary destruction of life", and emphasized kindness to animals and the important stewardship humans have toward them.[56]

Despite these statements, restricting meat consumption was not given an explicit mention for worthiness in the LDS Church as the standards for obedience to the Word of Wisdom were made increasingly central to LDS Church doctrine and practice in the early 20th century.[57] The increased emphasis on the Word of Wisdom took place during the presidency of Heber J. Grant, a long-time enthusiastic promoter of the Word of Wisdom. Although Grant did not emphasize restricting meat consumption, he continued to interpret it as part of the counsel in the Word of Wisdom. In the 1937 General Conference, at 80 years old, Grant said he worked long hours "without fatigue and without feeling the least injury". He attributed his excellent health, in part, to eating very little meat.[58]

In a 1948 LDS general conference address, apostle Joseph F. Merrill emphasized the importance of not eating meat as "freely as many Americans are doing".[59] In 1950, apostle and plant scientist John A. Widtsoe wrote, in relation to meat consumption, "they who wish to be well and gain the promised reward stated in the Word of Wisdom must obey all of the law, not just part of it as suits their whim or their appetite, or their notion of its meaning."[60] As recently as 2012, official church spokesperson Michael Otterson stated "the church has also encouraged limiting meat consumption in favor of grains, fruits and vegetables.[61]

To this day, the LDS Church's hymnal includes a hymn with the following lyrics:

That the children may live long / And be beautiful and strong, / Tea and coffee and tobacco they despise, / Drink no liquor, and they eat / But a very little meat; / They are seeking to be great and good and wise.[62]

A student manual published by the church has suggested that limiting the consumption of meat to the wintertime may be to some degree of the time in which the "Word of Wisdom" was delivered by Smith:

This verse has caused some to ask if meat should be eaten in the summer. Meat has more calories than fruits and vegetables, which some individuals may need fewer of in summer than winter. Also, before fruits and vegetables could be preserved, people often did not have enough other food to eat in winter. Spoiled meat can be fatal if eaten, and in former times meat spoiled more readily in summer than winter. Modern methods of refrigeration now make it possible to preserve meat in any season. The key word with respect to the use of meat is sparingly.[63]

Refined grain products

In a pamphlet written in 1930 called The Word of Wisdom, LDS Church apostle John A. Widtsoe taught that refined flour was contrary to the Word of Wisdom.[25] The church, however, has never prohibited the use of refined flour.

Other areas

Speculation exists concerning the use of alcohol as a cooking ingredient or "alcohol-free" varieties of drinks.[34] The LDS Church has taken no official stance on either.

Marijuana was banned by the LDS Church in August 1915.[64] In 2019 the church clarified in New Era that medical marijuana should only be used "under the care of a competent physician."[65]

Members should not use any substance that contains illegal drugs. Nor should members use harmful or habit-forming substances except under the care of a competent physician.[36]

Enstrom study regarding members of the LDS Church

A 14-year selective study conducted by UCLA epidemiologist James E. Enstrom tracked the health of 10,000 moderately active LDS Church members in California and ended in 1987.

Of these non-smoking, monogamous non-drinkers, Enstrom concluded from the study "that LDS Church members who follow religious mandates barring smoking and drinking have one of the lowest death rates, including from cancer and cardiovascular diseases—close to half that of the general population. ... Moreover, the healthiest LDS Church members enjoy a life expectancy eight to eleven years longer than that of the general white population in the United States." For LDS high priests who exercised, had proper sleep, and never smoked cigarettes, the mortality rate was even lower.

The results were largely duplicated in a separate study of an LDS-like subgroup of white non-smoking churchgoers in Alameda County, California.[66]

See also

References

  1. ^ In the edition published by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, it is Section 89. In the edition published by the Community of Christ, it is Section 86. In older editions which are used by some other Latter Day Saint denominations, it is section 81.
  2. ^ a b c "Word of Wisdom". www.churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  3. ^ a b "To this day those regulations [of the Word of Wisdom] apply to every member and to everyone who seeks to join the Church. They are so compelling that no one is to be baptized into the Church without first agreeing to live by them.": Boyd K. Packer, "The Word of Wisdom: The Principle and the Promises", Ensign, May 1996, p. 17.
  4. ^ a b LDS Church (2009). "Chapter 29: The Lord's Law of Health", Gospel Principles (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church) p. 167.
  5. ^ a b c "When a Membership Council Is Not Normally Necessary", General Handbook (LDS Church, 2020) § 32.6.4.
  6. ^ "Doctrine and Covenants, 1835, Page 207". www.josephsmithpapers.org. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
  7. ^ "15: Holy Places". Saints: The Story of the Church of Jesus Christ in the Latter Days, Volume 1, The Standard of Truth, 1815–1846. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 September 2018. pp. 167–168. ISBN 978-1-62972-492-8. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  8. ^ a b Smith, Joseph Fielding, ed. (1938). Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book. p. 117, n. 9.
  9. ^ Hoskisson, Paul Y. (Winter 2012). "The Word of Wisdom in Its First Decade". Journal of Mormon History. 38 (1). University of Illinois Press: 131–200. doi:10.2307/23292682. JSTOR 23292682. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Minute Book 1, Page 40". www.josephsmithpapers.org. The Joseph Smith Papers. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  11. ^ Smith, Joseph. "Chapter 2". In Roberts, B. H. (ed.). History of the Church, Volume 3. p. 18. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  12. ^ Joseph Smith (B. H. Roberts (ed.)), History of the Church (January 1836) vol. 2, 369 ("Our hearts were made glad by the fruit of the vine."; Joseph Smith (B. H. Roberts (ed.)), History of the Church (May 2, 1843) vol. 5, p. 380 ("Called at the office and drank a glass of wine with Sister Jenetta Richards, made by her mother in England,..."); Joseph Smith (B. H. Roberts (ed.)), History of the Church (June 27, 1844) vol. 6, p. 616 ("Dr. Richards uncorked the bottle, and presented a glass to Joseph, who tasted, as also Brother Taylor and the doctor..."); Joseph Smith (B. H. Roberts (ed.)), History of the Church (June 27, 1844) vol. 7, p. 101 ("Sometime after dinner we [John Taylor and other prisoners at Carthage Jail] sent for some wine. It has been reported by some that this was taken as a sacrament. It was no such thing; our spirits were generally dull and heavy, and it was sent for to revive us.... I believe we all drank of the wine, and gave some to one or two of the prison guards.").
  13. ^ Millennial Star, vol. 23, no. 45 p. 720 (9 November 1861).
  14. ^ "Diary of Joseph Smith", March 11, 1843 entry
  15. ^ Young, Brigham. Journal of Discourses. Vol. 12. p. 158. Retrieved 2022-07-29.
  16. ^ Diary of Abraham H. Cannon, vol. 19 (October 1895 entry); cited in Gary Dean Guthrie, Joseph Smith As An Administrator, M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, May 1969, p. 161.
  17. ^ Gary Dean Guthrie, "Joseph Smith As An Administrator", M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, May 1969, p. 161.
  18. ^ Joseph Smith (B. H. Roberts (ed.)), History of the Church, vol. 2, p. 252.
  19. ^ Donald Q. Cannon, Lyndon W. Cook. Far West Record: Minutes of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830–1844, p. 191
  20. ^ "Minutes of the General Conference", Tuesday, Sep. 9, 1851, afternoon session; Millennial Star, 1 February 1852, vol. 14, p. 35.
  21. ^ Journal of Discourses, vol. 8, p. 361.
  22. ^ Journal of Discourses, vol. 13, p. 344.
  23. ^ Journal of Discourses, vol. 9, p. 35 (encouraging Mormons to raise and sell tobacco).
  24. ^ Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Utah, p. 540, n. 44.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Thomas G. Alexander, "The Word of Wisdom: From Principle to Requirement", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 14:3 (1981) pp. 78–88.
  26. ^ Jana Riess (2019). The Next Mormons. Oxford University Press. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-0-19-093827-7.
  27. ^ Cook, Quentin L. (March 2003), "Looking beyond the Mark", Ensign
  28. ^ a b LDS Church (2002, 2d ed.) "Chapter 27: The Word of Wisdom", Gospel Fundamentals (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church) p. 150.
  29. ^ Gordon B. Hinckley, "The Body Is Sacred", New Era, November 2006, pp. 2–5.
  30. ^ Thomas S. Monson, "Standards of Strength", New Era, October 2008, pp. 2–5.
  31. ^ The Doctrine and Covenants Section 27 (LDS Church) or Section 26 (Community of Christ)
  32. ^ Doctrine and Covenants Section 89:5–6 (LDS Church) or Section 86:1b–1c (Community of Christ)

    "5 That inasmuch as any man drinketh wine or strong drink among you, behold it is not good, neither meet in the sight of your Father, only in assembling yourselves together to offer up your sacraments before him.

    6 And, behold, this should be wine, yea, pure wine of the grape of the vine, of your own make."
  33. ^ Doctrine and Covenants Section 89:17 (LDS Church) or Section 86:3b (Community of Christ)

    "17 Nevertheless, wheat for man, and corn for the ox, and oats for the horse, and rye for the fowls and for swine, and for all beasts of the field, and barley for all useful animals, and for mild drinks, as also other grain."
  34. ^ a b What's Not on the Mormon Menu, Dummies.com, retrieved 2009-06-19
  35. ^ "New Research Confirms: "Hot Drinks" Are Not Good for Your Body (But It's Not About the Caffeine)". 15 June 2016.
  36. ^ a b "21.3.11 Word of Wisdom", Handbook 2: Administering the Church, LDS Church, 2010
  37. ^ Smith, Hyrum (1 June 1842). "The Word of Wisdom". Times and Seasons. 3 (15): 800–801. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  38. ^ Johnson, Joel Hills (1881). A Voice From the Mountains: Being A Testimony of the Truth of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as Revealed by the Lord to Joseph Smith, Jr. Salt Lake City, Utah: Juvenile Instructor Office. p. 12.
  39. ^ "Section 89: The Word of Wisdom". Doctrine and Covenants Student Manual. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2002. p. 209. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07.
  40. ^ Frederick J. Pack, "Should Latter-Day Saints Drink Coca-Cola?" Improvement Era 21:5 (March 1918).
  41. ^ "Mormonism in the News: Getting It Right–August 29" (Press release). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. August 29, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  42. ^ Conference Report, April 1922, p. 165.
  43. ^ LDS Church, "Priesthood Bulletin", February 1972, p. 4; quoted in "Section 89 The Word of Wisdom", Doctrine and Covenants Student Manual (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, 2002) p. 209.
  44. ^ Kirby, Robert (March 10, 2007). "Mitt stirs up old caffeine controversy". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  45. ^ David A. Erickson, "Caffeine not prohibited" (letter to the editor), Deseret Morning News, 3 January 2008.
  46. ^ Herald, Shelby Slade and Braley Dodson Daily. "BYU begins selling caffeinated sodas on campus". Daily Herald. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
  47. ^ Boud, Thomas J. (December 2008). "The Energy Drink Epidemic". Ensign.
  48. ^ Stratton, Clifford J. (March 1990). "Caffeine–The Subtle Addiction". Liahona.
  49. ^ Stephenson, William T. (July 2008). "Cancer, Nutrition, and the Word of Wisdom: One Doctor's Observations". Ensign.
  50. ^ Peggy Fletcher Stack (November 26, 2010). "LDS Church handbook on social issues available online". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  51. ^ Peggy Fletcher Stack (September 26, 2011). "Mormons can drink caffeine? 'Dew' tell". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  52. ^ Section 89:12–13
  53. ^ Brigham Young, "The True Church of Christ—the Living Testimony—Word of Wisdom", Journal of Discourses 12:209, May 10, 1868.
  54. ^ George Q. Cannon, "Word of Wisdom—Fish Culture—Dietetic", Journal of Discourses 12:221–22, April 7, 1868.
  55. ^ Dennis B. Horne, ed., An Apostle's Record: The Journals of Abraham H. Cannon (Clearfield, Utah: Gnolaum Books, 2004) p. 424.
  56. ^ Joseph F. Smith, "Humane Day", Juvenile Instructor 53 no. 4 (April 1918):182–83.
  57. ^ Paul H. Peterson, An Historical Analysis of the Word of Wisdom (M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, August 1972).
  58. ^ Heber J. Grant, Conference Report (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, April 1937) p. 15.
  59. ^ Joseph F. Merrill, "Eat Flesh Sparingly", Conference Report, April 1948, p. 75.
  60. ^ Widstoe, John A., The Word of Wisdom: A Modern Interpretation (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 1950).
  61. ^ Tumulty, Karen. "Mormonism good for the body as well as the soul?", Washington Post, June 20, 2012.
  62. ^ "In Our Lovely Deseret", Hymns, no. 307.
  63. ^ "Section 89 The Word of Wisdom", Doctrine and Covenants Student Manual (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, 2002) pp. 206–11.
  64. ^ E.J. Sanna (2 September 2014). Marijuana: Mind-Altering Weed. Mason Crest. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-1-4222-9299-0.
  65. ^ Forgie, Adam (14 August 2019). "LDS Church clarifies 'Word of Wisdom' on vaping, green tea, coffee, marijuana, opioids". KUTV. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  66. ^ Enstrom, 1989.

Bibliography

External links