Potency and safety analysis of hemp-derived delta-9 products: The hemp vs. cannabis demarcation problem

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws
AbbreviationNORML Edit this on Wikidata
Established1970 Edit this on Wikidata (54 years ago)
FoundersKeith Stroup Edit this on Wikidata
Legal status501(c)(4) organization Edit this on Wikidata
HeadquartersWashington, D.C. Edit this on Wikidata
Websitewww.norml.org Edit this on Wikidata

The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML /ˈnɔːrməl/ ) is a social welfare organization based in Washington, D.C., that advocates for the reform of marijuana laws in the United States regarding both medical and non-medical use. According to their website, NORML supports "the removal of all penalties for the private possession and responsible use of marijuana by adults, including cultivation for personal use, and casual nonprofit transfers of small amounts" and advocates for "the creation of a legal and regulatory framework for marijuana's production and retail sale to adults".[1] NORML also has a sister organization, NORML Foundation, that focuses on educational efforts and providing legal assistance and support to people affected negatively by current marijuana laws.[2] NORML maintains chapters in a number of US states as well as outside the US in countries such as Canada, France, New Zealand, and South Africa.[3][4]


NORML was founded in 1970 by Keith Stroup. It originally started with $5,000 in funding from the Playboy Foundation. Since then, the organization has played a central role in the cannabis decriminalization movement. At the start of the 1970s, the premier decriminalization organizations were Legalize Marijuana, better known as LeMar, and Amorphia, the two of which merged in 1971.[5] The next year, Amorphia led the unsuccessful campaign for California's marijuana legalization initiative, Proposition 19.[6] In 1974, Amorphia merged with NORML.[5]

By the middle of the 1970s, Playboy owner Hugh Hefner's financial support through the Playboy Foundation set NORML apart from its predecessors, making it the premier decriminalization advocacy group. At one point, Hefner was donating $100,000 a year to NORML.[6]

NORML Executive Director Erik Altieri is joined by U.S. Representatives Don Young and Tulsi Gabbard at a press conference outside the U.S. Capitol (2019).

The organization has a large grassroots network with 135 chapters and over 550 lawyers. NORML holds annual conferences and Continuing Legal Education (CLE)-accredited seminars. Its board of directors has, at times, included political figures as Philip Hart, Jacob K. Javits, and Ross Mirkarimi.[7]

In 1989, Donald Fiedler succeeded Jon Gettman as the executive director of NORML. In August 1992, Richard Cowan became executive director of NORML. Keith Stroup became executive director once again in 1995 after Cowan stepped down. In 2016, Erik Altieri was selected by the NORML Board of Directors to become the organization's 7th Executive Director. In 2021, travel writer Rick Steves became the chairman of the Board of Directors.[8]

Media and activism

In the 2006 United States midterm elections, NORML promoted several successful local initiatives that declared marijuana enforcement to be the lowest priority for local law enforcement, freeing up police resources to combat violent and serious crime.[9]

In early 2009, a petition to President Barack Obama was written asking that he appoint a "drug czar" who would treat drug abuse as a health issue rather than a criminal issue and will move away from a "War on Drugs" paradigm. NORML's goal for this petition was 100,000 signatures.

Also in early 2009, when the Kellogg Company dropped its contract with Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps after pictures of his use of a bong surfaced in the media, head members of NORML began boycotting Kellogg products and urging all members and supporters of NORML to boycott Kellogg, until the company reversed the decision. NORML also suggested that supporters of the cause send emails or letters to Kellogg explaining the boycott and the reasons behind it, and providing a template for emails and letters. Although Kellogg's profits did not suffer in the first quarter of 2009,[10] consumer ratings polls at Vanno[11] have been cited as indicating that Kellogg's reputation has suffered. Specifically, a small poll of Kellogg's brand reputation at Vanno showed a drop from its previous rank of 9 to 83 after Kellogg decided not to renew its contract with Phelps.[12][13]

Signs promoting NORML at the Twin Cities Pride Parade in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 2013

On February 15, 2010, a 15-second flash animation from NORML discussing the potential economic and financial benefit of legalized marijuana was deemed by CBS to be "too political" to display on billboards in New York City's Times Square. This drew criticism in the blogosphere and accusations of hypocrisy on Twitter, since CBS had recently aired an anti-abortion television spot during the 2010 Super Bowl.[14] CBS reversed its decision and the ad was debuted on the CBS Times Square Superscreen on April 20, 2010.[15]


NORML Foundation

The NORML Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization[16] that conducts educational and research activities. Examples of the NORML Foundation's advocacy work is a detailed 2006 report, Emerging Clinical Applications For Cannabis.[17] A comprehensive report with county-by-county marijuana arrest data, Crimes of Indiscretion: Marijuana Arrest in America, was published in 2005.[18]

In October 1998, NORML Foundation published the NORML Report on U.S. Domestic Marijuana Production that was widely cited in the mainstream media. The report methodically estimated the value and number of cannabis plants grown in 1997, finding that Drug Enforcement Administration, state and local law enforcement agencies seized 32% of domestic cannabis plants planted that year. According to the report, "Marijuana remains the fourth largest cash crop in America despite law enforcement spending an estimated $10 billion annually to pursue efforts to outlaw the plant."[19] Recent studies show that marijuana is larger than all other cash crops combined.[20]

In 2002, the organization used ads containing quotes by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg on his past use of cannabis, saying "You bet I did. And I enjoyed it." The mayor said "I’m not thrilled they’re using my name. I suppose there’s that First Amendment that gets in the way of me stopping it," but maintained that the NYPD will continue to vigorously enforce the laws.[21]

State and local chapters

International chapters

NORML international chapters:[22]

See also


  1. ^ "Adult-Use". NORML. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  2. ^ "About NORML". NORML. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  3. ^ "Find a Chapter". NORML. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  4. ^ "International Chapters". NORML. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  5. ^ a b Joshua Clark Davis. (November 6, 2014). The Long Marijuana-Rights Movement. Archived September 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  6. ^ a b Joshua Clark Davis, The Business of Getting High: Head Shops, Countercultural Capitalism, and the Marijuana Legalization Movement, The Sixties: A Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, Summer 2015
  7. ^ Carlson, Peter (January 4, 2005). "Exhale, Stage Left". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  8. ^ "NORML Elects Budget Travel Guru Rick Steves as New Board President". MERRY JANE. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  9. ^ "NORML: Frequently Asked Questions". National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
  10. ^ Scott Eden (April 30, 2009). "Kellogg Beats Targets Despite Weaker Sales". TheStreet. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
  11. ^ "Kellogg - Reputation Scores". vanno.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  12. ^ "Dumping Phelps Over Bong Rip Damages Kellogg's Brand Reputation". The Business Insider. February 23, 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  13. ^ Graham, Nicholas (February 24, 2009). "Kellogg's Brand Damaged By Dumping Michael Phelps". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  14. ^ "CBS rejects NORML legalization billboard, but accepts "Black Children are an Endangered Species" anti-abortion billboard". NORML. February 15, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
  15. ^ "Foundation To Launch Second NYC Times Square Billboard Campaign New Ad Debuts On April 20 On The CBS Super Screen". NORML. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
  16. ^ "The Norml Foundation | Washington, DC | Cause IQ". www.causeiq.com.
  17. ^ "Recent Research on Medical Marijuana". National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. February 3, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2007.
  18. ^ "Crimes of Indiscretion". National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. March 7, 2005. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2007.
  19. ^ "NORML Report on U.S. Domestic Marijuana Production". National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. March 7, 2005. Retrieved April 22, 2007.
  20. ^ Bailey, Eric (December 18, 2006). "Pot is called biggest cash crop". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  21. ^ NYC Mayor Bloomberg's Pot Use is NORML: Drugwar.com Archived June 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "International Chapters".

Further reading