Potency and safety analysis of hemp-derived delta-9 products: The hemp vs. cannabis demarcation problem

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  • 1-Pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole
CAS Number
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass375.90 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • c14ccccc1n(CCCCC)cc4C(=O)c(cc3)c2ccccc2c3Cl
  • InChI=1S/C24H22ClNO/c1-2-3-8-15-26-16-21(19-11-6-7-12-23(19)26)24(27)20-13-14-22(25)18-10-5-4-9-17(18)20/h4-7,9-14,16H,2-3,8,15H2,1H3 ☒N
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JWH-398 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family, which acts as a cannabinoid agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. It has mild selectivity for CB1 with a Ki of 2.3 nM and 2.8 nM at CB2.[2] This synthetic chemical compound was identified by the EMCDDA as an ingredient in three separate "herbal incense" products purchased from online shops between February and June 2009.[3] It was discovered by, and named after, John W. Huffman.[4]

In the United States, JWH-398 is a Schedule I controlled substance.[5]

See also


  1. ^ Grozījumi Ministru kabineta 2005.gada 8.novembra noteikumos Nr.847 "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem"
  2. ^ Huffman JW (2009). Reggio PH (ed.). Cannabimimetic Indoles, Pyrroles, and Indenes: Structure–Activity Relationships and Receptor Interactions. The Cannabinoid Receptors. The Receptors. Humana Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-503-9. ISBN 978-1-58829-712-9.
  3. ^ "Understanding the 'Spice' phenomenon" (PDF). Lisbon: EMCDDA. November 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-04-08. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  4. ^ Huffman JW, et al. (2009). Structure-Activity Relationships at the cb1 and cb2 Receptors for 1-Alkyl-3-(1-Naphthoyl-4 and 8-Halogen Substituted) Indoles. 19th Annual Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Burlington, Vermont: International Cannabinoid Research Society. p. 2.
  5. ^ Controlled Substances listed by the DEA