Potency and safety analysis of hemp-derived delta-9 products: The hemp vs. cannabis demarcation problem

Add links
Clinical data
Other names5F-AKB-48, 5F-AKB48
Legal status
Legal status
  • N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass383.511 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=C(NC1(C[C@@H]2C3)C[C@H](C2)C[C@H]3C1)C4=NN(CCCCCF)C5=CC=CC=C54
  • InChI=1S/C23H30FN3O/c24-8-4-1-5-9-27-20-7-3-2-6-19(20)21(26-27)22(28)25-23-13-16-10-17(14-23)12-18(11-16)15-23/h2-3,6-7,16-18H,1,4-5,8-15H2,(H,25,28)/t16-,17+,18-,23?

5F-APINACA (also known as A-5F-PINACA,[3] 5F-AKB-48 or 5F-AKB48) is an indazole-based synthetic cannabinoid that has been sold online as a designer drug.[4][5] Structurally it closely resembles cannabinoid compounds from patent WO 2003/035005 but with a 5-fluoropentyl chain on the indazole 1-position, and 5F-APINACA falls within the claims of this patent, as despite not being disclosed as an example, it is very similar to the corresponding pentanenitrile and 4-chlorobutyl compounds which are claimed as examples 3 and 4.[6]

5F-APINACA was first identified in South Korea.[7] It is expected to be a potent agonist of the CB1 receptor and CB2 receptor.[8] Its metabolism has been described in literature.[9][10][11][12]


5F-APINACA acts as a full agonist with a binding affinity of 1.94 nM at CB1 and 0.266 nM at CB2 cannabinoid receptors.[13]


In the United States, 5F-APINACA is a Schedule I controlled substance.[14]

5F-APINACA is an Anlage II controlled drug in Germany since July 2013.

As of October 2015, 5F-APINACA is a controlled substance in China.[15]

5F-APINACA is banned in the Czech Republic.[16]

See also


  1. ^ Anvisa (2023-07-24). "RDC Nº 804 - Listas de Substâncias Entorpecentes, Psicotrópicas, Precursoras e Outras sob Controle Especial" [Collegiate Board Resolution No. 804 - Lists of Narcotic, Psychotropic, Precursor, and Other Substances under Special Control] (in Brazilian Portuguese). Diário Oficial da União (published 2023-07-25). Archived from the original on 2023-08-27. Retrieved 2023-08-27.
  2. ^ "Substance Details 5F-APINACA". Retrieved 2024-01-22.
  3. ^ Pulver B, Fischmann S, Gallegos A, Christie R (March 2023). "EMCDDA framework and practical guidance for naming synthetic cannabinoids". Drug Testing and Analysis. 15 (3): 255–276. doi:10.1002/dta.3403. PMID 36346325.
  4. ^ "AKB48 N-(5-fluoropentyl) analog". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  5. ^ "5F-AKB48" (PDF). Scientific Working Group for the Analysis of Seized Drugs (SWGDRUG). 18 February 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  6. ^ WO 2003/035005
  7. ^ Chung H, Choi H, Heo S, Kim E, Lee J (January 2014). "Synthetic cannabinoids abused in South Korea: drug identifications by the National Forensic Service from 2009 to June 2013". Forensic Toxicology. 32 (1): 82–88. doi:10.1007/s11419-013-0213-6. S2CID 23058813.
  8. ^ "AKB48 (APINACA) and 5F-AKB48 (5F-APINACA)" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration. May 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  9. ^ Jang M, Shin I, Kim J, Yang W (February 2015). "Simultaneous quantification of 37 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry". Forensic Toxicology. 33 (2): 221–234. doi:10.1007/s11419-015-0265-x. S2CID 3038555.
  10. ^ Karinen R, Tuv SS, Øiestad EL, Vindenes V (January 2015). "Concentrations of APINACA, 5F-APINACA, UR-144 and its degradant product in blood samples from six impaired drivers compared to previous reported concentrations of other synthetic cannabinoids". Forensic Science International. 246: 98–103. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.11.012. PMID 25485949.
  11. ^ Holm NB, Pedersen AJ, Dalsgaard PW, Linnet K (March 2015). "Metabolites of 5F-AKB-48, a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, identified in human urine and liver microsomal preparations using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry". Drug Testing and Analysis. 7 (3): 199–206. doi:10.1002/dta.1663. PMID 24802286.
  12. ^ Wohlfarth A, Castaneto MS, Zhu M, Pang S, Scheidweiler KB, Kronstrand R, et al. (May 2015). "Pentylindole/Pentylindazole Synthetic Cannabinoids and Their 5-Fluoro Analogs Produce Different Primary Metabolites: Metabolite Profiling for AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA". The AAPS Journal. 17 (3): 660–677. doi:10.1208/s12248-015-9721-0. PMC 4406957. PMID 25721194.
  13. ^ Hess C, Schoeder CT, Pillaiyar T, Madea B, Müller CE (1 July 2016). "Pharmacological evaluation of synthetic cannabinoids identified as constituents of spice". Forensic Toxicology. 34 (2): 329–343. doi:10.1007/s11419-016-0320-2. PMC 4929166. PMID 27429655.
  14. ^ "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Six Synthetic Cannabinoids (5F-ADB, 5F-AMB, 5F-APINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, MDMB-CHMICA and MDMB-FUBINACA) Into Schedule I". Drug Enforcement Administration. Archived from the original on 2019-10-17. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  15. ^ "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" [Notice on the issuance of the "Regulations on the Listing of Non-Medicinal Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Drugs"] (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  16. ^ "Látky, o které byl doplněn seznam č. 4 psychotropních látek (příloha č. 4 k nařízení vlády č. 463/2013 Sb.)" (PDF) (in Czech). Ministerstvo zdravotnictví. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2016-02-06.

External links